Home / PART 3: The truth behind the Fall of the Ottoman Empire / 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads

2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads

In the first part of the site, readers have seen how the theory of evolution, the biggest scientific blunder in history, was molded by members of the British deep state before being imposed on the people of the world. It was also explained that the desire to erase moral, spiritual, familial and patriotic sentiments all around the world in a bid to create open societies inclined to conflict was the real reason why Darwinism was so intensely supported. The British deep state hoped that the theory would help spread its dajjali system around the world, help disintegrate the Islamic community and degenerate Christian and Jewish communities. It considered this an easy way to drag societies into conflicts and moral decline.

The British deep state made sure to choose the right time to introduce the scourge of Darwinism to the Ottoman Empire. By the late 19th century the Empire had largely lost its power and influence. Disguised as ‘enlightenment’, the scourge entered and spread sinisterly in the Ottoman lands with the help of certain people who imagined that subscribing to materialism was equivalent to being modern. Associations, institutions and schools that were opened under British deep state’s supervision worked to indoctrinate the people into Darwinism. As a result, the noble Turkish nation that represented the Caliphate, as well as all Muslim nations, fell into the clutches of a movement that maintained ‘there is no God’ (God is above such remarks).

After the poison was injected, the rest came easy for the British deep state. As Darwinism spread in the body, the goal of an Islamic Union was forgotten, the Muslim world was divided, and people lost their religious and patriotic values, which were most often replaced by hypocritical behaviors. From that point on, the British deep state was able to easily manipulate the Ottoman society by means of its spies and propaganda tools. In fact, at one point, it was able to dictate to statesmen and sultans like Abdul Hamid II whom they kept under pressure.

For these reasons, it would be an accurate conclusion to say that the first main contributing factor to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire was Darwinism.

How Did Darwinism Take Root in the Ottoman Empire?

By the early 19th century, Westernization had become the top trend among the Ottoman intelligentsia and diplomats. First scientific and technological developments, and then political and economic models of the Western world made their way into the empire to renovate the Ottoman state system. Even the Ottoman army went through a thorough reformation that included detailed changes in uniforms and equipment.

Although this Westernization trend was useful in some areas, it also negatively influenced the social order and mindset of the Ottoman public. Many people began to believe that the Western world was ‘absolutely better’ in everything, including philosophy and science. Atheistic ideologies like materialism, positivism and Darwinism, already prevalent in Europe, affected many Ottoman intellectuals. As a result, many came to believe that being an atheist, supporting unscientific claims of Darwin and having a materialist worldview meant being modern and Western-like. Some politicians of the time built their policies on social Darwinism, which claimed that only strong societies could survive in the fight for life. Ultimately, this Darwinist trend that denied the existence of God became the downfall of the Ottoman Empire. Starting in the second half of the 19th century, materialist views of Ernst Haeckel, Herbert Spencer, Auguste Comte etc. proliferated among some of the Ottoman intellectuals. During this time, more than two hundred materialist and Darwinist books were translated into Turkish and Arabic.

During this time, materialist books were widely circulated at the Ottoman medical, law, political science and military schools, which trained many officers and administrators. A 19th-century traveler named Mac Farlane wrote what he saw after he paid a visit to the medical school in the Ottoman Empire in 1847:

[Referring to the medical library] It was long since I had seen such a collection of downright materialism. … A book was lying open on the divan. I took it up. It was a copy of a recent Paris edition of the Atheist’s manual, “Système de la Nature”, with the name of the Baron d’Holbach on the title-page as the author. The volume had evidently been much used; many of the striking passages had been marked, and especially those which mathematically demonstrated the absurdity of believing in the existence of a God and the impossibility of believing in the immortality of the soul.113 [Certainly, Almighty God is above such remarks]

In other words, Darwinist thoughts that dragged students into atheism quickly proliferated in the medical schools. Abdülaziz Khan ordered that Darwinist education be stopped at once as soon as he ascended to the throne, and dismissed from their duties those who were arguing in favor of a Darwinist/materialist education.

Spread of the Theory of Evolution in the Empire during the Reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II

idd 236 OsmanliDarwin RisaleiHamidiye 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
The Hamidian Treatise, by Lebanese author Husayn al-Jisr, was a book intended to propagandize evolution theory in a religious disguise. This was a method to impose the lie of evolution on the religious people of the time by means of the said scholars and their books.

The Darwinist indoctrination that came to a standstill during the reign of Sultan Abdülaziz reached its height during the rule of Abdul Hamid II. Darwinist/materialist papers, books and journals spread across the Empire’s lands, and mostly in Istanbul, Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria. Even more worryingly, Darwinism was incorporated into the school curriculum in many places. Darwinist/materialist officers that were removed from their duties by Abdülaziz were not only reinstated, they were promoted to key positions in the Ministry of Education, the State Publishing House and even to grand viziership.

Abdul Hamid II himself ordered that 20,000 copies of the Hamidian Treatise by Lebanese writer Husayn al-Jisr be printed and distributed in Istanbul. The book was full of materialist and Darwinist claims and was intended to sow the seeds of atheistic philosophy in Ottoman society. Interestingly enough, the book was named the Hamidian Treatise, as a tribute to Abdul Hamid II. When the book became popular, al-Jisr was invited by Abdul Hamid II to Istanbul and was received in the Malta Mansion and was given the Fourth Class Order of Osmanieh, in addition to various other gifts. Abdul Hamid II praised him on numerous occasions. He was invited three times by Abdul Hamid II to Istanbul and stayed as the Sultan’s guest.

Abdul Hamid II instructed the translation and publication of the Hamidian Treatise in Turkish and asked al-Jisr to compile a book on religious principles for schools.114

Abdul Hamid II indeed showed support for al-Jisr but the truth was al-Jisr and his book were among the main reasons that led to the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Under the personal orders of Abdul Hamid II, the book was widely disseminated across the Empire. In the book, which he dedicated to Abdul Hamid II, al-Jisr claimed –despite the complete absence of scientific evidence to back his point- that mutations could help organisms evolve and that there were many transitional forms. According to al-Jisr, Darwin’s theory did not contradict the religion of Islam.

The truth is mutations are deformations that are harmful 99% of the time and neutral the remaining 1% time. As a matter of fact, recent scientific studies showed that even the 1% accepted to be neutral become harmful over time. For this reason, they are now called silent mutations. In other words, science has proven that mutations are 100% harmful. Furthermore, the claim that ‘there is a sufficient amount of transitional forms’ is one of the biggest deceptions of the theory of evolution. More than 700 million fossils have been unearthed so far and not even one of them belongs to a transitional form. Not even one single transitional form fossil has been found so far showing that living things evolved from another, and it is impossible that any will be found in the future. Each and every one of the hundreds of millions of fossils unearthed so far belongs to complete, perfect, flawless creatures that hadn’t gone through any changes. Even Darwin himself admitted in his book that unless transitional form fossils are found, his theory would collapse:

…why, if species have descended from other species by fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms? Why is not all nature in confusion, instead of the species being, as we see them, well defined…? But, as by this theory innumerable transitional forms must have existed, why do we not find them embedded in countless numbers in the crust of the earth…? Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory.115

idd 238 OsmanliDarwin HocaTahsin TarihiTekvin 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
Hasan Tahsini, the first rector of Darülfünûn, established by Abdul Hamid II and considered as the beginning of the University of Istanbul, was one of the first Darwinists. His book is an example of Darwinist propaganda

Al-Jisr went as far as claiming that this theory, which denied the existence of God, did not contradict the Qur’an. His Hamidian Treatise was full of unscientific and non-Qur’anic explanations like the mistaken claim that Darwin’s theory did not contradict with belief in God and that theory of evolution could be interpreted in line with religion and that some verses could be construed that way. He provided an example of those writers and scholars of the time, who sought to spread this lie among religious people. Indeed, his book was translated into many languages, particularly Turkish and Urdu, and quickly became popular among many scholars in modern Syria and Turkey. Some of the scholars in Al-Azhar University, in particular, paid close attention to the book. Al-Jisr was himself a graduate of that university.

Hasan Tahsini, also known as Hoxha Tahsin, was the first rector of the Darülfünûn –the original Istanbul University-, founded by Sultan Abdul Hamid II. Hasan Tahsini was among the first Darwinists in the Ottoman Empire and was appointed to the post of rector of the University by Abdul Hamid II. Grand Vizier Reşid Pasha had personally sent him to Europe to study, from where he returned as a materialist. In his article ‘Tarih-i Tekvin’ (History of Creation), he was talking about the so-called ‘new levels of change that the universe would achieve in the future as a result of the rule of evolution that dominated the entire universe and existence’.116

idd en 222 EvrimciAdamlar MecmuaiFunun Alibudak 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
Mecmua-i Fünûn, which was published by Münif Pasha as ‘the first Ottoman scientific journal’, promoted Darwinism.

Hasan Tahsini famously tried to explain the origin of the universe and the creation of man as well as other life forms through the theory of evolution in his book Varoluşun Tarihi veya Yaratılış (History of Being or Creation). He also worked vehemently to spread the Darwinist theory. His staunch devotion to the materialist theory earned him the nickname ‘Monsieur Tahsini’. He brought Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, an evolutionist Al-Azhar graduate, to Istanbul and allowed him to carry out evolutionist propaganda at Istanbul University. Afghani was another fervent supporter of al-Jisr’s book. Hasan Tahsini raised many students before he was dismissed from his duty on the grounds of ‘impairing the faith of the young people he taught’. However, many of his students now were materialists, were already working across the Empire’s lands and teaching other young people Darwinism, which made the theory spread like wildfire.

Books and articles of Ahmed Midhat Efendi, another evolutionist, were also widely used as reference texts in the university. Dağarcık (Repertoire) magazine published by Ahmed Midhat Efendi in 1871 heavily propagandized the erroneous idea of evolution while its tens of thousands of copies were widely circulated throughout the Empire. He claimed that ‘humans had inherently violent qualities as humans were also sort of animals’ as he defended the violence of social Darwinism as follows:

idd 240 OsmanliDarwin ServetiFununDergisi 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
Servet-i Fünun (Wealth of Knowledge) magazine, known for its materialist and Darwinist articles, was only one example of the Darwinist publications during the reign of Abdul Hamid II. (1892)

Revenge is a sort of justice, is a violent justice. Evil is done rarely for pleasure, but rather it is pursued for greed, reputation and interests. Then how do we know that the evil behavior, a part of our nature, will harm us? If teazel hurts, it’s because it’s created that way.117

Similarly, the ‘Ottoman Society of Science’ founded by Münif Pasha, who was the Minister of Education during the reign of Abdul Hamid II, aimed at spreading materialism and evolution through scientific journals. Their first journal, Mecmua-i Fünûn (Journal of Sciences) was filled with evolutionist propaganda. Sultan Abdülaziz had previously dismissed Münif Pasha due to propagandizing evolution but when Abdul Hamid II ascended to the throne, Münif Pasha was again made the Minister of Education.

Darwinist and materialist inculcation worked, with results becoming quickly visible as the Ottoman intelligentsia began gathering around the so-called New Literature Movement and its publication Servet-i Fünûn (Wealth of Knowledge), which acted as the hub of materialism and positivism. Abdülhak Hamid Tarhan and Recaizade Mahmud Ekrem, the leading poets and authors of the movement, entertained following twisted views that would no doubt impair the moral values of the society:

Islamic civilization had reached the end of its lifetime.
A new civilization rose in the West, with new thoughts, sociology and techniques.
This civilization will, sooner or later, destroy the Ottoman Empire.

idd en 224 EvrimciAdamlar AhmedCevdet SamiFrasheri 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
Ahmed Cevdet (1) and Sami Frashëri (2), who were the editors-in-chief of dailies printed during the reign of Abdul Hamid II, were both evolutionists.

Sami Frashëri (authored under the name of Şemseddin Sami Efendi), and Ahmed Cevdet, the editors-in-chief of dailies Sabah (Morning) and Ikdam (Effort) respectively, were also leading evolutionists during the reign of Abdul Hamid II. Sami Frashëri’s book Njeriu (Human Being) that he wrote in 1878, Ethem Necdet’s Tekâmül Kanunları (Laws of Development) and Celal Nuri’s Tarih-i Tedenniyat-ı Osmaniye: Mukadderat-ı Tarihiye (History of Ottoman Empire’s Decline: Dialectics of History) are only few of the Darwinist books published during Abdul Hamid II’s reign. Together with Tercüman-i Hakikat (Interpreter of Truth) and its lead writer Ahmed Midhat Efendi, the three major newspapers of the time were under evolutionist influence. Furthermore, Ceride-i Havadis (Journal of News), another popular newspaper of the time, and its lead writer Beşir Fuad also had evolutionary views. These people are usually considered the first people to spread atheism in the Ottoman Empire. Ceride-i Havadis (Journal of News) was published by the British journalist William Nosworthy Churchill as the first semi-official newspaper of the Ottoman Empire. Although from the outside it appeared as a journal of science and literature and thus gathered the writers of the time under its roof, its true purpose was shaping public opinion in favor of the political and economic interests of the British. This point becomes even more interesting considering the fact that David Urquhart, who had served as the secretary of the British embassy at Istanbul between 1835 and 1837, reported to the Royal Family that he found the Ottoman Empire, which had rich natural sources and a wide market, beneficial for British interests.

With Ceride-i Havadis, William Nosworthy Churchill tried subtly to make the Ottoman public accept what was in favor of the British interests. Indeed, a couple of years later, the Ottoman Empire began to meet the raw material needs of British industry, and the sales of British products increased at the expense of Ottoman industry. Turkish Cypriot scientist Niyazi Berkes speaks of how the situation baffled the British and how they mocked the Ottoman statesmen for being so gullible.118 (The statesmen of the time are above such remarks)

idd en 225 EvrimDergileri CerideiHavadis BahceDergisi 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
1. Ceride-i Havadis (to the side), published by British William Churchill during the reign of Abdul Hamid II, subtly tried to shift Ottoman public opinion in favor of British interests.

2. A piece in the magazine Bahçe, published in Thessaloníki, about the life of Darwin (1909)

Moreover, many other publications during the era of Abdul Hamid II such as İçtihad (The Opinion), Piyano Mecmuası (Piano Journal), Envar-ı Zeka (Light of Intelligence), Yirminci Asırda Zeka Mecmuası (Intelligence Journal in Twentieth Century), Güneş (Sun), Havran, Mecmua-ı Ulüm (Journal of Knowledge), Saadet (Happiness), Afak (The Horizon) and Felsefe (Philosophy), contributed to promulgation of the evolution lie in the Empire. Consequently, the Ottoman society suffered a swift moral decline.

The education system of Abdul Hamid II’s reign raised many materialists that worked to disseminate the lie of evolution. Some of them, and some from the years that followed, and their anti-Islamic views can be listed as follows:

Ahmed Midhat Efendi: One of the first defenders of the theory of evolution in the Ottoman Empire. Despite being previously removed from his duties by Sultan Abdülaziz, he was invited back to Istanbul when Abdul Hamid II ascended to the throne. Abdul Hamid II ordered him to found the newspaper Tercüman-ı Hakikat (Interpreter of Truths), which became the semi-official publication of the Palace. The newspaper was published until 1921, with famous Darwinist writers of the time like Ahmed Cevdet and Ahmed Rasim as its regular columnists. Abdul Hamid II also appointed Ahmed Midhat as the director of the State Publishing House.

idd en 226 EvrimDergileri Ictihat AlMuqtataf 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
1. The evolutionist philosophy magazine Içtihad (The Opinion), disseminated in Istanbul and Cairo, was another Darwinist publication during Abdul Hamid II’s reign. (1904) 2. Al-Muqtataf magazine, the first in the Arab world to mention evolution

Some of the titles of Ahmed Midhat Efendi’s pieces were, “Adem ve Orangutan” (Adam and Orangutan), “Hayvanatın Hissi” (Feelings of Animals), “İnsan Tenha Yaşasa Ne Olur” (What Would Happen if Humans Lived Alone). The last-mentioned piece claimed that humans had a completely animalistic past and that they supposedly evolved in time to reach their current state in addition to other outlandish notions, such as if a human baby lived among animals, he would have behaved like an animal.

Another piece by Ahmed Midhat, “Dünyada İnsanın Zuhuru” (The Appearance of Man on Earth) which was taught in schools, started with the following sentence: ‘Since humans are sort of animals, of course we are curious how they might have come into being in this world’. The article was full of Darwinist tales.

Another article by Ahmed Midhat entitled “İntikam” (Revenge) – once again taught in schools – wrongly claimed that violence was a part of human nature; in other words, he was promoting social Darwinism:

idd en 228 EvrimciAdamlar AhmedCevdet AhmedRiza SalihZeki 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
1. Ahmed Cevdet 2. Ahmed Rıza 3. Salih Zeki
idd en 229 EvrimciAdamlar RizaTevfik HuseyinCahitYalcin AhmetSuaybi 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
1. Rıza Tevfik 2. Hüseyin Cahit Yalçın 3. Ahmet Şuayb

Revenge is a sort of justice, is a violent justice. … Then how do we know that the evil behavior, a part of our nature, will harm us?

Mehmed Esad Saffet Pasha: Ahmed Midhat was a close friend of Saffet Pasha, a Minister of Education during the rule of Abdul Hamid II. Upon orders from the Sultan, Saffet Pasha appointed Hasan Tahsini as the rector of Istanbul University, who was another evolutionist. He was one of the people who completely changed the Ottoman educational system and supposedly brought European standards to education (to put it more accurately, he incorporated Darwinism into the education system). He was one of the founders of Galatasaray High School, one of the centers of Darwinist education at the time. Sedat Simavi, the founder of the Hürriyet newspaper, is Saffet Pasha’s grandson. Saffet Pasha was also one of the plotters of the coup against Sultan Abdülaziz in 1876.

idd en 230 OsmanlidaDarwinizm SpanishIslam 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
Dutch historian Reinhart Dozy’s book Spanish Islam: A History of the Moslems in Spain, which sought to explain Islam with materialism and included sacrilegious remarks about the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the religion of Islam, was translated into Turkish and made its way into Ottoman lands and sped up the fall of the Empire.
Translated by: Abdullah Cevdet, 1908, during Abdul Hamid II’s reign

Ahmed Rıza: Supported the ‘world citizen’ view of positivism. Due to his anglophile character and emulation of English style in the way he dressed, he was also known as the English Ahmed Rıza.

Salih ZEKİ: Defended the materialist views of Auguste Comte in Robert College, Darüşşafaka and Darülfünûn, where he lectured.

Rıza TEVFİK: Considered Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin as his teachers and promoted Darwinism in his articles.

Hüseyin Cahit YALÇIN: Became a materialist while studying at the School of Political Sciences. He considered the theory of evolution as a requirement of materialism and rejected Creation.

Ahmet ŞUAYB: Worked as a lecturer at the School of Law and Istanbul University, and supported the views of Comte.

Abdullah CEVDET: After being introduced to evolutionist ideas at the Medical School, Abdullah Cevdet proselytized his materialist, evolutionist and atheist views for the following 28 years through his magazine İçtihad (The Opinion). His destructive ideas created a deep wound in Ottoman society. He was a social Darwinist that went as far as suggesting that European men should be brought for breeding so that Turkish race could be improved.119 According to Abdullah Cevdet, the superiority of the races could be determined by the size of their skulls. He was a member of the Society of the Friends of England, which was founded by anglophiles during the occupation of Istanbul. He published Fünûn ve Felsefe (Science and Philosophy) that sought to reconcile the ideas of Islamic scholars with those of materialist philosophers and biologists.

A staunch propagandist of Darwinism and atheism through his numerous articles and books, Abdullah Cevdet was appointed to the Vienna Embassy by Abdul Hamid II. Many people wrongly believe that Abdullah Cevdet was a dissident against the Sultan. The truth was different however, because Abdullah Cevdet was one of the informers working for Abdul Hamid II. Abdul Hamid II provided him with the necessary funding so that he could settle in Vienna. Strangely enough, he was also one of the people behind the 1908 coup that saw the deposition of Abdul Hamid II.

Physician Hayrullah Efendi: “İnsanın Satıhı Arzda Sureti İntişarı” (The Spread of Man on the Face of Earth) by Hayrullah Efendi was one of the most popular evolutionist pieces that circulated at schools during the reign of Abdul Hamid II. He claimed that in addition to the account of human history that started with the Prophet Adam (pbuh), the origins of humans had to be explained from an evolutionary perspective.

Ziya GÖKALP: A protégé of Abdullah Cevdet, Gökalp spread materialist views in Turkish society and played a big role in the moral decline that affected a large part of the community.

idd en 231 EvrimciAdamlar ZiyaGokalp SuleymanHusnu BesirFuad 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
1. Ziya Gökalp 2. Süleyman Hüsnü Pasha 3. Beşir Fuad
Ziya Gökalp (1), Süleyman Hüsnü Pasha (2) and Beşir Fuad (3), among the materialist and evolutionist writers of the Abdul Hamid II era

Süleyman Hüsnü PAŞA: Commander of the military college and one of the coup plotters that organized the deposing of Sultan Abdülaziz.

Süleyman Paşazade SAMİ: The son of the coup plotter Süleyman Hüsnü Pasha, he served as the Minister of Education and as the rector of the Istanbul University. He prepared guidelines for primary schools, and worked on children’s education with a project named ‘Education and Training of Children’.

Beşir FUAD: Had a materialist worldview. As the mentor of Abdullah Cevdet, Baha Tevfik, Ahmet Nebil and Celal Nuri, he was responsible for their materialist views. He introduced social Darwinism to the Ottoman Empire, which was one of the basic ideologies of Young Turks during the Abdul Hamid II rule. Beşir Fuad was heavily influenced by evolutionist/materialist thinkers such as Claude Bernard and Ludwig Büchner. He committed suicide at the age of 35 and wrote down how he felt as he slipped away. He said that he did this to leave a scientific understanding as to what one feels at time of death. This suicide created shock waves in the Ottoman society, which up to that point was quite unfamiliar with the concept of suicide, and triggered a suicide trend in Istanbul.

Baha TEVFİK: Became an evolutionist at the School of Political Sciences during the reign of Abdul Hamid II. He argued for unconditional Westernization. In an article he wrote for the journal Felsefe (Philosophy), he claimed that a philosopher had to be a scientist and definitely a materialist. To him metaphysics was ’empty and negative’ and contradicted science. In his book Hassasiyet Bahsi ve Yeni Ahlak (Issue of Sensitivities and New Morality), he rejected religious moral values. His so-called solution for the future of the humanity was communism and anarchy. He believed that the future could be revived with scientific anarchy.

idd en 233 EvrimciAdamlar BahaTevfik EthemNejat CelalNuriIleri 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
1. Baha Tevfik 2. Ethem Nejat 3. Celal Nuri İleri
Baha Tevfik (1), Ethem Nejat (2) and Celal Nuri İleri (3), among the materialist and evolutionist writers of the Abdul Hamid II era

Hüseyin HİLMİ: It is reported that he got his communist ideals from Baha Tevfik. In the journal İştirak (The Participation) that he published in 1910, he wrote several pieces on Marxism.

Subhi EDHEM: A teacher of history of nature, he was also an author at Servet-i Fünun (Wealth of Knowledge). Taught Lamarckism and Darwinism during his lectures.

Ethem NEJAT: Became an evolutionist together with Baha Tevfik. He was also writing for İçtihad (The Opinion) magazine of Abdullah Cevdet. He was the founding general secretary of the Communist Party of Turkey.

Memduh SÜLEYMAN: Translated Eduard von Hartmann’s book Wahrheit und Irrtum im Darwinismus, and co-authored Nietzsche’nin Hayatı ve Felsefesi (Nietzsche’s Life and Philosophy) with Baha Tevfik. He was one of the ideologues of Ottoman Socialist Party.

Celal Nuri İLERİ: Believed that matter didn’t have a beginning or an end. After reading Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet’s Discours sur l’histoire universelle (Discourse on Universal History), he became an evolutionist and argued in his book Tarih-i İstikbal (History of Future) (1915) that Islam should be reformed by means of materialism and evolution. According to Celal Nuri, matter was everywhere, every moment and could not have possibly gone bad. He believed that power was an inherent part of matter, that the two were interlinked and could not be separated. He made a feeble attempt to reconcile Islam and the theory of evolution. The truth is, he rejected belief in God right in the beginning of his book, making his intentions clear that, as an evolutionist, he was only trying to spread an atheistic ideology in the Empire.

The Theory of Evolution in the Ottoman-Arab Lands

Before 1876, which was the year Abdul Hamid II ascended to the throne, no books or articles had ever been written in the Arabic world about Darwin or his theory of evolution. The first time something about Darwin was ever written was in 1882. It should be noted that when the British deep state invaded Egypt in 1881, Al-Azhar University became a haunt of the evolutionists.

Darwin’s theory was first mentioned in the Arab world in a series of three articles published in the monthly Arabic magazine al-Muqtataf. This magazine was founded by Yaqub Sarruf and Faris Nimr in Beirut in 1876. All three pieces were penned by Rizq-Allah al-Berbari and ascribed human origins to so-called evolutionary mechanisms. He referred to Lamarck and praised Darwin. Vol. 2 had three more articles written by Bishara Zalzal Efendi on anthropology.

Bishara Zalzal published a 368-page book in Alexandria, Egypt in 1879. This book, which was dedicated in both prose and poetry to Sultan Abdul Hamid II, was entitled Tanwir al-adhhan (The Enlightenment of Minds). In the book, Lord Cromer was praised as “a typical example of the Anglo-Saxon people”. Obviously, Zalzal was an evolutionist that had a deep admiration for Abdul Hamid II, British Lord Cromer and the whole Anglo-Saxon people in general.120

These supposedly ‘scientific’ magazines quickly proliferated in Egypt, Lebanon and Syria between 1865 and 1929. The most popular three of the evolutionist magazines were as follows:

Al-Muqtataf (Anthology, Harvest, or Selection) (1876-1952)

Al-Hilal (The Crescent) (1892-1930)

Al-Mashriq (The East) (1898-1930)

The so-called enlightenment movement in the Arabic world called ‘al-Nahda’ originated in Egypt and possessed largely evolutionist views. Unsurprisingly, its founder, Rifa’a al-Tahtawi, was an evolutionist who deeply admired Britain. Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh were among the leading figures of this movement.

Jamal al-Din al-Afghani was a social Darwinist. He claimed that the Islamic world could progress only if Islamic nations fought each other. Many violent radical organizations were built on this premise and the vicious cycle of violence that continues even today in the Islamic world was based on his Darwinist ideas.

In the meantime, evolutionist Christian Arabs began to spread social Darwinism, which quickly resulted in the popularity of a racist form of nationalism among Arabs. Young Turks were also embracing social Darwinism at the time, and began to pursue the Turkish version of the same racist understanding. These two clashing ideas drove a wedge between Muslims that had lived together peacefully for more than a thousand years, and civil unrest began erupting across the lands of the Empire. Over the next 20 years, the entire empire came crashing down. The social Darwinist indoctrination and propaganda under Abdul Hamid II’s administration had taken its toll and tore a vast Empire into pieces.

idd 244 NAHDA MuhamedAbduh RifaaAlTahtaw 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
1. Mohammad Abduh, also from al-Nahda movement, was another evolutionist. 2. Rifa’a al-Tahtawi, the leader of al-Nahda movement that began in Egypt, embraced evolutionary ideas.

Darwinism’s Fortress: Al-Azhar University

Al-Azhar University in Egypt is an important educational institute. However, there is a lingering British deep state influence, which started when Egypt came under British rule. Some of its famous graduates have been tasked with doing the bidding of the British deep state.

It was Al-Azhar University that helped the theory of evolution make its true entry into the Muslim Arab world. As a matter of fact, it is where evolutionists such as al-Jisr have been taught. Darwinist Lord Cromer made changes in the university and appointed evolutionist Muhammad Abduh as the Grand Mufti of Egypt. A graduate of Al-Azhar, Abduh was one of the first Muslim evolutionists and the founder of the so-called Islamic modernism.

Mohammed Amin al-Husseini, appointed by the British as the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in 1921, also was a graduate of Al-Azhar, not to mention a fan of Muhammad Abduh. The British deep state set up armed Jewish units while simultaneously supporting radical Palestinian nationalist movements in Palestine. The goal was turning two nations against each other when they had co-existed peacefully for centuries before. On the other hand, Ahmed ‘Urabi (known as Ahmad Arabi), who was the leader of the unrest which resulted in the invasion of Egypt by the British, was also a graduate of Al-Azhar. Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani, the founder of the Hizb ut-Tahrir party, was also an Al-Azhar graduate. Furthermore, Omar Abdel-Rahman, who was held responsible for the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, also graduated from Al-Azhar University. Most of these people are also evolutionists.

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idd 246 ElEzher Universitesi 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
Al-Azhar University, the fortress of Darwinism in the Arabic world. Opened in 972 as a mosque, the building was later made a school in 989

This entire evolutionist group was trained by Evelyn Baring, known as Lord Cromer, who was British controller-general and Consul-General in Egypt between 1878 and 1907. Cromer was a racist and an ardent evolutionist. He was convinced in the superiority of Western societies and claimed that the Islamic world and Egyptian people were inferior, and that those societies could never govern themselves (Turkish- Islamic societies are above such claims). He claimed that all races should be ruled by the supposedly ‘superior’ races, and maintained that Anglo-Saxons were superior and, just like parents, had to rule the world. Claiming that Western societies should discipline Eastern people, Lord Cromer elaborated why he appointed Muhammad Abduh as the Grand Mufti of Egypt:

They are the natural allies of the European reformer. Egyptian patriots –sua si bona norint– will find in the advancement of the followers of Mohammed Abdu the best hope that they may gradually carry out their programme of creating a truly autonomous Egypt.121

Today, many of the radical groups that shed blood supposedly in the name of Islam are the products of this creed. The British deep state presents these people, who in truth have nothing to do with Islam and who are indeed diametrically opposed to Islam with their evolutionist and therefore racist views, as the ‘main players of radicalism’ and plays out its own scenario with the help of these actors. These Darwinist spies, who were raised with the inculcation of the British deep state, are charged with bolstering instability and carrying out terror attacks in countries, all in line with the orders of the deep state.

Evolutionist Views Take a Toll on Ottoman India and Pakistan

It was Syed Ahmad Khan, an Indian Muslim, that introduced the theory of evolution to the Muslims of India and Pakistan. Heavily influenced by Muhammad Abduh, Syed Ahmad Khan was deeply loyal to Britain and was knighted by the British government. Once he explained his thoughts on the British rule as follows:

We are loyal and dedicated to the British government. We don’t answer to the Islamic caliphate. Instead of reporting to a distant caliph, we will rather report to the British administrators in our country.122

The Aligarh Muslim University, founded by Syed Ahmad Khan, served as the center of Darwinism in the region and raised many evolutionists – and it had a multitude of Indian and Pakistani politicians among its graduates. This university played a significant role in the systematic spread of Darwinism and set the stage for Pakistan’s and India’s departure from the Ottoman Caliphate. It also helped introduce certain individuals with an inferiority complex to the British deep state, and created a front in India and Pakistan against the Ottoman Empire.

The Scourge that Brought the Downfall of the Ottoman Empire: Darwinism

idd 248 SeyyidAhmedHan 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads
Syed Ahmad Khan

Turkish historian Süleyman Kocabaş eloquently explains the methods of the British deep state when it wishes to gain control over a region:

British colonization policy since the 18th century has been based on principles of degenerating moral values, spying, plots and dividing indigenous people to eventually pit them against each other.123

The British deep state achieved its goals – first by building the stage for moral degeneration across the lands of the Empire. The initial step was spreading Darwinism through pivotal points like media, schools and universities. It should be remembered that this had been the goal of the British deep state all along, since the first time it molded and began spreading the lie of Darwinism. Societies, deprived of their moral values and harboring hatred for each other, would inevitably destroy their countries. The British deep state always prepares this setting and the rest follows as planned.

In the case of the Ottoman Empire, everything certainly went as planned by the British deep state. A couple of evolutionist intellectuals, deliberately placed in strategic positions, were presented as very important people supposedly bringing ‘enlightenment and science’. Proponents of evolution had no qualms about producing false evidence to support the theory, which was in fact devoid of any scientific evidence. Then Darwinist dictatorship – controlled by the British deep state – stepped in to provide full protection to the lie of evolution in the Empire. As a result, all who dared to reject evolution were ostracized and denied jobs at schools and in business life. The British deep state’s plan was to quickly spread Darwinism, hoping that it would erode moral values. Regrettably, their predictions came true and civil unrest, clashes and riots began breaking out across the Empire. Soon after, the entire Empire began falling apart.

idd en 239 OttomanEmpire Darwinism 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads

However, it should never be forgotten that if a society says, ‘there is no God’, God will never allow them to continue their presence. The real reason behind the fall of the Empire was not the deep plans and plots. It was because of the spread of this horrible system of disbelief that said, ‘there is no God’ (Almighty God is above such remarks). This is true for every other country and system that makes the same mistake. No system or state can succeed if they think promoting evolution will make them ‘modern and progressive’. The fact that God sometimes gives some countries time to change and correct their behavior shouldn’t make anyone believe otherwise.

By the grace of God, when the Mahdi (pbuh) emerges, people and states will see the immensity of their mistake and abandon the scourge of Darwinism. Sensible people should see the fall of the Ottoman Empire as an important lesson from God and engage in an intellectual effort against the deceit of Darwinism.

Almighty God explains that every destroyed country met that end because they insisted on their mistakes even though they knew the truth:

Company of jinn and men! Did not messengers come to you from among yourselves relating My signs to you and warning you of the encounter of this day of yours? They will say, ‘We testify against ourselves.’ The life of the world deluded them and they will testify against themselves that they were unbelievers. That was because their Lord would never have destroyed the cities unjustly while their people were unaware. (Qur’an, 6:130-131)

That is because God is the Real and what you call on apart from Him is false. God is the All-High, the Most Great. (Qur’an, 22:62)

idd en 241 EskiIstanbul Tablo 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads

The Coat of Arms of Abdul Hamid II Was Commissioned by Queen Victoria

Abdul Hamid II was one of the Ottoman sultans that ruled under intense pressure from the British deep state. The effect was so palpable, even his coat of arms was commissioned by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, who hired the Briton Charles Young for the job. After some additions made to the design by Abdul Hamid II himself, the emblem became the official coat of arms of the Empire in 1882.

In the design, the tughra (signature) of the Sultan at the top was encircled by a sun, which represented the control of the British Empire –the empire upon which the sun never sets- over the Ottoman Empire. The banners of the Caliphate and the Ottoman Empire were placed under the British Sun. The figure in the middle was the diamond on the British Royal scepter, in other words, a nod to the British Kingdom. The sword, spear and other similar figures on the design are also found on the British imperial state crown.

idd en 242 KraliceTac 2. Moral Values Decline as Darwinism Spreads

Footnotes:

112. Furkan Düzenli, “Kızgın Kumlarda Kazanılan Büyük Zafer: Kûtü’l-Amâre” [Great Victory Won on Hot Sand], Haber10, April 30, 2016, http://www.haber10.com/tarih/kizgin_kumlarda_kazanilan_buyuk_zafer_kutul_amare-629101

113. Charles Mac Farlane, Turkey and its Destiny, Vol. II, London, 1850, pp. 270, 301

114. “Hüseyin Cisri Hazretleri ve Kitabındaki İşaretler” [Husayn al-Jisr and the Signs in His Book], Risale Online, http://www.risaleonline.com/soru-cevap/huseyin-cisri-hazretleri-ve-kitabindaki-isaretler

115. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1859, p. 172.

116. “Hoca Tahsin” [Hodja Tahsin], Ülkücü Dünya, July 3, 2012, http://www.ulkucudunya.com/index.php?page=haber-detay&kod=5827

117. Ahmed Midhat, “İnsan-Dünyada İnsanın Zuhuru” [Emergence of Man in the World], Dağarcık, Issue 4, 1288, pp. 109-116

118. Niyazi Berkes, Türkiye’de Çağdaşlaşma [Modernization in Turkey], Yapı Kredi Yayınları, Istanbul, 2002; “Ceride-i Havadis”, Wikipedia, https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceride-i_Havadis)

119. Burhan Bozgeyik, Meşhurların Son Anları [Final Moments of the Celebrities], TÜRDAV Publishing, pp. 310-311

120. “Darwin’s Shadow: Context and Reception in the Muslim World”, https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Darwin’s+shadow%3A+context+and+reception+in+the+Muslim+world.-a0201086403

121. Abdullah Al Andalusi, “Lord Cromer on the British Colonial Project for Egypt”, December 23, 2013, https://abdullahalandalusi.com/2013/12/23/a-brief-word-by-lord-cromer-on-the-british-colonial-project-for-egypt/

122. Kenan Alpay, “Hindistan ve Pakistan’da Modernizm ve İslam” [Modernism and Islam in India and Pakistan], http://www.islamdusuncesi.net/hindistan-ve-pakistanda-modernizm-ve-islam-308h.htm

123. Süleyman Kocabaş, Osmanlı İsyanlarında Yabancı Parmağı, Bir İmparatorluk Nasıl Parçalandı?, [Foreign Intrusion in Ottoman Riots, How An Empire Was Dismembered], Vatan Publication, October 1992, p. 94

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