Before we begin to study the Armenian issue in detail, which has been a controversial issue since WWI, it is important to keep in mind that everything that happened during those years took place in the course of an all-encompassing world war that cost the lives of millions of people. Both parties suffered immensely as a result.
Turkey’s official position on the matter is demanding an examination of historical archives, and commissioning an independent international committee, which will examine the accuracy of the allegations based on historical records. Needless to say, going back to the historical records is important so that the truth can be known, baseless allegations can be eliminated, and justice can be established. However, the most important goal should be leaving behind the past and working to rebuild our friendship and brotherhood. There is no doubt that both Armenians and Turks suffered heavy losses during the war but holding grudges and calling each other to account for events of centuries ago is not the right course of action. Today’s generations should focus on building a union of love, which will bring happiness to everyone.
Armenians are honest, bright and decent people. For centuries, we have lived together as a family; they have been great assets to our nation and made great contributions with their trustworthy, artistic, educated and talented characters. They held top administrative positions not only in the Ottoman government, but also in the Ottoman Army. However, the British deep state worked relentlessly to tear this beautiful people away from us, to break our bond. Such aspirations continue even today. This deep organization has always used the Armenian issue as leverage in reaching its goals. As we examine the history of the Armenian problem, it is important to carefully study these points.
We are dedicating this whole chapter to the Armenian problem in the Ottoman Empire, because it was mostly incited, planned and orchestrated by the British deep state. The mistaken beliefs that ‘radical nationalism and conflicts between races would bring about improvement’, which originated and spread to the rest of the world from Britain, caused serious problems in Anatolian communities, like they did among many Middle Eastern peoples. Particularly after oil was discovered in the region, the increasing geopolitical and geostrategic importance of the region gave even more of an incentive to the British deep state and it sped up its plots involving the regional people including Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Arabs, and Turks among others. By numerous plots, the British deep state drove a wedge between us and our Armenian brothers and sisters. Therefore, it is crucial to keep this point in mind and carefully consider the evidence offered in the following pages.
The Loyal People or ‘Millet-i Sadıka’
The first interaction between the Muslims and Anatolian Armenians took place during the reign of the four caliphs. Muslims under the command of Uthman ibn Affan arrived in Caucasus in 640 and took full control of the region in 653. Muawiya, the then Syrian governor and the first ruler and founder of the Umayyads, refrained from Arabization or Islamization policies and instead offered broad autonomies to the indigenous Nakharar families.
When Sultan Alp Arslan defeated the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the doors of Anatolia were opened to Turks. From that point on, Turks and Armenians have lived together side by side on these lands. It should also be noted that after the fall of the Seljuks, the Armenian Church maintained its presence under Turkish, Iranian and Mongol rules until the Ottoman Emirate built the Anatolian union.
|(1) An affluent Ottoman Armenian lady||(2) An Armenian football team in Istanbul|
When Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror took Istanbul in 1453, a sort of golden age for the Armenians began. Sultan Mehmed II, completely of his own accord, invited Hovageem to Istanbul and established an Armenian Patriarch next to the Greek Patriarch in 1461. Hovageem was the spiritual leader of the Armenians at the time. Following this development, the Patriarch was declared the leader of the Armenian community by the Sultan’s decree and the Armenians were entrusted to his care. This development prompted Armenian populations around the world to come to Istanbul and form Istanbul’s strong Armenian community. After Eastern Anatolia and South Caucasia were conquered during the reigns of Sultan Selim I and Sultan Suleiman I, the Armenian population in the newly taken areas was also incorporated in the Istanbul community and bonded to the Istanbul Patriarch. Throughout the history of Ottoman rule, Armenians enjoyed great freedoms in religion, politics, economy and culture.
|For centuries, Armenians and Turks lived together in harmony and peace. They are two fraternal peoples of these lands.|
Armenians, as the trusted, reliable and friendly non-Muslim constituents of a Muslim country, were known as the ‘Loyal People’ (Millet-i Sadıka). They formed a precious and indispensable part of Ottoman society. Just as every other Ottoman citizen, they enjoyed many rights and liberties in the Ottoman Empire, practiced their religion freely and without any inhibition engaged in business and social life. This is the path to which the Qur’an guides us.
Among the people of the Book there are some who believe in God and in what has been sent down to you and what was sent down to them, and who are humble before God. They do not sell God’s signs for a paltry price. Such people will have their reward with their Lord. And God is swift at reckoning. (Qur’an, 3:199)
The Speech of Mesrob II Mutafyan of Constantinople, the 84th Patriarch of Turkey’s Armenians
Mesrob II Mutafyan, the 84th Patriarch of Turkey’s Armenians expressed his feelings during a speech given at the reception held in Hilton Hotel on May 22, 1999:
… In 1461, only eight years after Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror took Istanbul, he issued an edict and established the Istanbul Patriarchy. This was a clear indication of Sultan Mehmed II’s and other Ottoman Sultans’ visionary characters and their embracing attitude towards other faiths. Indeed, Sultan Mehmed II was the first and last ruler in history to establish a spiritual leadership institute for the members of another religion… As we enter the new millennium with all the wars and conflicts going on around the world, we can better appreciate the importance of this incident that took place 538 years ago and better understand the importance of love and respect for different faiths and cultures.
The Writings of Mateos of Edessa [Urfa]
|Famous Armenian historian from Urfa, Mateos described the Seljuk approach to Armenians: ‘Malik-Shah’s heart was full of compassion and goodness for the Christians. He treated the children of Jesus very kindly. He brought peace, wealth and happiness to the Armenian people.’
Mateos also wrote the following after the death of Sultan Kilij Arslan:
The death of Kilij Arslan deeply saddened the Christians. This Sultan had a noble character and loved to help.1
These examples clearly show the peaceful atmosphere that Armenians enjoyed for centuries of their harmonious co-existence with Turks.
|1. Matthew of Edessa, Urfalı Mateos Vekayi-namesi (952-1136), The Chronicle, no.129, p. 146|
‘Armenian Territory’ as a Propaganda Tool
The Armenian issue, which is today used by the British deep state as a propaganda tool, is based on the allegation that Eastern Anatolia has always been a land that solely belonged to the Armenians. Before we elaborate why the claim is baseless, we must note that the modern state of Armenia with its current borders is a friendly neighbor of Turkey and its citizens have been the brothers and sisters of the Turkish people for almost 1,000 years. Turkey respects the existence, borders and international rights of Armenia, as is the case with its other neighbors. More importantly, Turkey desires all these countries to be lasting and strong.
However, the above allegation made by certain circles that the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey is Armenian’s only, contradicts historical facts.
According to this allegation developed by the British deep state, the Turks have been an occupying force on the Armenian lands starting with the Seljuks and followed by the Ottomans, and even persecuted them. These allegations suggest that the so-called oppression continues even today. However, a close examination of the common Turkish-Armenian history will reveal the baseless nature of these allegations. It should also be noted that Armenians did not have such claims until WWI, when the British deep state started its black propaganda on this matter.
First of all, the allegation that the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey is exclusively an Armenian homeland does not reflect historical facts. The region in question, where Armenians once lived in large groups, was a Persian province from 521 until 344 B.C., before becoming a part of the Macedonian Empire from 344 to 215 B.C., and then a part of the Seleucid Empire. It was later transferred to and fro between the Rome Empire and the Parthian Empire, then became a Sasanid province and finally a Byzantine land. After the 7th century, the region was controlled by the Umayyad Caliphate, followed by the Abbasid rule that continued until the end of the 10th century, when the Byzantine Empire retook the lands. After the 10th century, the Turks arrived in the region.
Adnan Oktar Says
|Adnan Oktar: Let’s rebuild our brotherhood with the Armenians. Let’s open borders with Armenia, let’s hug each other. They were one of us, our brothers in the Ottoman era. It’s still the same; nothing has changed. They are the ‘loyal people’. They are good, well-mannered people. [Anything to the contrary] is wrong; is a sin. We won’t allow anyone to drive a wedge between us. (Excerpt from Mr. Adnan Oktar’s interview on A9 TV on December 18, 2011)
Adnan Oktar: They [the officials of the two countries] have reached an agreement on visas and then after a while, there won’t be any need for passports as well. They’re discussing the final details. But of course, it is important to avoid a language that might embarrass them [the Armenians]. They are good people that expect compassion and love. They want the good old times to come back. Armenians are ‘the loyal people’, ‘millet-i sadıka’. We entrusted our soldiers to Armenian pashas, and gave them key positions in the administrations. It is important to have a compassionate approach. Comparing bones, counting bones and skulls, these are very dangerous things. It’s good that after we drew attention to how wrong this was, they stopped this attitude. Thank God, that’s a good development. We should focus only on love. I said that they would retreat from Nagorno-Karabakh and indeed they are doing it. I also said that ‘Insha’Allah they will open the Lachin corridor’ and indeed it is being opened now. It will ensure connection between Turkey and Azerbaijan. For example, when our President went to Armenia, on that day, they put out the eternal fire on the memorial. So they are thinking about it, they know and I believe they will do whatever is necessary. They want only sincere love and compassion. It is crucial to strictly avoid any harsh, accusatory statements. Personally, when I witness such language, it embarrasses me. They are a few people, trapped in a small country. Of course, we will save them from there. By the grace of God, our union of love will incorporate Israel, China, Azerbaijan, Turkistan, Kazakhstan, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria among others. (Excerpt from Mr. Adnan Oktar’s press conference on September 17, 2009)
Armenians are an ancient, civilized people that have existed in the region since antiquity. Throughout history though, they either lived under the rule of various other nations, or their own states acted as a buffer zone between the big empires of the time and were subjected to frequent interventions. The Armenians will certainly continue to live in Eastern Anatolia, which will always be their home. However, as the historical data indisputably shows, it would be incorrect to assert that Eastern Anatolia is an exclusively Armenian region where no other nation’s people ever lived.
Armenian historian Kevork Aslan confirms this truth with the following words:
Armenians lived as feudal states. They don’t have a bond based on a sense of a shared land. Neither do they have political bonds. They answer only to feudal states where they reside, and therefore their feelings of patriotism are regional. Their bonds are not based on politics, but are rather due to their shared religion and language.217
The British Deep State Begins to Manipulate Some Armenians
A close examination of the British policy of the East in the second half of the 19th century will reveal the close links Britain built with indigenous people. Needless to say, these ties were not built to help these people, but rather to make sure that they could be manipulated to serve the British policies in the most ‘efficient’ ways. Hundreds of Britons were sent to the region for this purpose, and carried out activities disguised as ‘archeologists, religious scholars, historians, or teachers’. Some planted and nourished divisive thoughts in the society, while others provoked the leading figures of communities against the central administration. Armenians, which are one of the ancient communities of Anatolia, became a primary target of the numerous spies dispatched to the region by Britain at the time.
The Treaty of Berlin, signed on July 13, 1878 under pressure from the British, forced the Ottomans to introduce reforms in Rumelia (Ottoman lands in Europe) and regions where Armenians lived. These reforms, which on the surface were bringing additional rights and liberties to the regional people, in truth marked the beginning of the control of the British deep state over the Armenians, an Orthodox Christian community. However, it wasn’t an easy task to convince Orthodox Armenians to ally with the Protestant British. Indeed, the conversion in question took many years, took many British spies, sectarian missionaries and intense propaganda through the Western media.
|A Muslim scholar is seen together with Patriarchs of Cyprus and Armenians in the 19th century. The British deep state sought to disrupt this union.|
Emilius Clayton, who was at the time British Vice-Consul at Van, sent a report to London on November 29, 1879 that argued the Armenian state should either not be founded at all, or if it was going to be established, Russian control over it should not be allowed. The Vice-Consul believed that the Ottoman Empire would collapse and so reforms should be guided to allow the establishment of a British-controlled Armenian state. He wrote, ‘Armenians would first prosper and get strong as a British or European protectorate, and get ready politically. Then, Armenians in other regions would be transferred to Eastern Anatolia to increase the total Armenian population. However, no matter the size of migration they would always remain a minority. So, as a secondary step, the Turkish population would gradually be driven out of Eastern Anatolia. Only Kurds and Assyrians should be left. Assyrians would set aside their sectarian differences with the Armenians and mingle with them. Kurds, on the other hand ‘would be forced to behave at gunpoint’, and compelled to live together with the Armenians. All of this would be undertaken under Ottoman rule, as a part of the enforcement of reforms. And when the time comes and Ottoman Empire collapses, an independent state would be founded for Armenians. But since this makeshift state could not survive on its own, it would have to live under ‘strong British hegemony’.218
|Guns the Armenian gangs used. These gangs were provoked by the British deep state into rebelling against the Ottoman Empire|
The plan seemed to work. With the pretense of overseeing the Ottoman efforts to improve the rights of Christian constituents, Britain sent consuls to various Ottoman provinces. Usually selected from high-ranking soldiers, these consuls stepped outside the boundaries of their duties and carried out intelligence work in the region. Even worse, upon false information, they provoked, organized and armed some of our Armenian citizens, before blatantly inciting them to rebel.
In the beginning there were serious trust and communication issues between the British consuls and the Armenian community due to sectarian differences. In order for the said consuls/spies to win over the Armenians, the Armenians first had to be made Protestants. To this end, certain American missionaries were sent to the region, mostly to Mardin. These efforts angered the local people and the Eastern Orthodox Churches. British consuls, on the other hand, offered protection to both these missionaries and the new Protestant converts. Needless to say, this protection wasn’t offered out of respect for their faith, but rather due to strategic concerns regarding the region.
This certainly wasn’t the first time that this strategy was applied on Ottoman lands. Ahmed Hamdi, the then Tekirdağ district officer, made the following warning about the imminent danger:
The Protestant community in Tekirdağ stated that they were British protégés. British Consul, in the meantime, continues to meddle in everything, claims that Protestants are under his country’s protection and wishes to have them under his control. Since his attitude is causing problems and confusion in the city, it can be said that unless a precaution is taken, the Armenian community will come under the British rule after being converted to Protestantism. Since the desire of the Consul is to make the Armenian community loyal to himself and since such a development will be harmful to our country in every way, we are strongly in need of the Prime Ministry’s urgent instructions as to how we should proceed about the issue. Please kindly advise us how to proceed with regards to the Protestant community.219 (August 21, 1858, Tekirdağ District Officer, Ahmed Hamdi)
The British Deep State’s Base for Armenian Riots: Cyprus
|A Cyprus coin from 1890 with Queen Victoria’s picture on it|
Before the secret Cyprus Treaty of 1878, which supposedly temporarily transferred Cyprus’ rule to the British, 45,000 Muslims and some 100,000 non-Muslims were living on the island. Armenians, Greeks, Jews and a small number of Nazarenes constituted the non-Muslim population. Some British people, supposedly missionaries, actively worked on the island to influence this Christian population. When the British managed to obtain the control of the island, they opened a school for Armenians to gain favor with them. This marked the first step towards the British deep state ambition to use Cyprus as a base for the Armenian issue. So much so, Dashnak and Hunchak resistance movements –that were behind many riots– were organized in Cyprus. The Society for the Friends of Armenia and Committee of Armenian Refugees Foundation were based in Cyprus, while certain Anatolian Armenian groups who were provoked into rioting were being increasingly directed and managed from Cyprus. Sivasliyan, who was the head of Hunchakian Revolutionary Party based in Britain and a lawyer located in Famagusta, was enthusiastically rallying the Armenians of the island against the Ottoman Empire and tried to convince them to participate in the riots taking place on the mainland.
Cyprus wasn’t only a cultural and social center used to incite certain Armenian groups; it was also an important logistics hub for the insurgency. Ottoman Armenians and European Armenians that sympathized with the riots were communicating via Cyprus. Similarly, pro-riot Armenians who fled abroad or who planned to return to Anatolia could do so secretly by way of Cyprus. After taking part in riots in Aleppo, Diyarbakır, Bitlis, Hakkari and Van, the Armenian rebels would board ships in Iskenderun and Mersin and sail to Cyprus. They easily changed identities, taking advantage of British rule, and then left for Europe or the US.
Weapons purchased by certain Armenian groups in Europe were also dispatched to Armenian insurgents via Cyprus. The entire operation was masterminded, controlled and guided by the British deep state. Cyprus wasn’t only close to Anatolia; it was also a threat to various Ottoman cities in modern Syria and Lebanon’s borders, due to the presence of some Armenian rebels, who used the island as a base. However, the Ottomans lacked the infrastructure to prevent this traffic or even to monitor developments.
Let us note one more time that the people mentioned here were Armenian insurgents that were operating under the control of the British deep state. It is true that some of our Armenian citizens were swayed by the influence of the British deep state and chose a wrong path. However, most of our Armenian citizens at the time remained loyal to their country, the Ottoman Empire, and refused to fall for the lies of the British deep state. These decent people continued to live in Turkey in peace and safety after the foundation of the Republic of Turkey and are still a valuable part of our country.
|Armenians of Tomarza, Kayseri, as they are being trained at Cyprus, Monagra Armenian Legion Camp|
Regional Riots before WWI
The British deep state’s protection of its interests in Eastern Anatolia hinged on a strategy of mobilizing some groups from the Armenian community against the Ottomans. This is a fact confirmed today by many Western and Armenian historians. Initially, the British deep state’s efforts failed because the Armenians had no complaints about the Ottoman administration, as they had lived for centuries in peace. Therefore, many organizations set up for provocation purposes failed and disappeared in time. They became active and sought success in countries other than the Ottoman Empire.
Louise Nalbandian, a modern leading propagandist of the Armenian issue, described the goal of such rebel groups with the following words: “Agitation and Terror were needed to ‘elevate the spirit of the (Armenian) people’… The people were also to be incited against their enemies and were to ‘profit’ from the retaliatory actions of these same enemies…. The party aimed at terrorizing the Ottoman government…” 220 In other words, a group of Armenians that the British deep state provoked into starting riots in Anatolia chose ‘terror’ as their method. Indeed, following the establishment of such rebel groups, riots broke out across Anatolia and consequently many innocent local people – Turks, Kurds, Assyrians and Armenians – lost their lives while Anatolia lost its peace.
|Armenians in Cyprus (1878)|
Armenians were a free people that were mostly occupied with arts and trade under the Ottoman rule. They enjoyed full religious freedom, had their own churches, worshipped the way they wanted and had their monasteries where they trained their own clergy. They didn’t have to serve in the military. In other words, the Ottoman Empire had provided them centuries of unprecedented peace and security. However, as the Ottoman Empire entered its decline period, a role was also cut out for them by the British deep state. Certain groups from the Armenian community were supposed to rebel against the Ottoman Empire. The British deep state was well aware that the Armenian people had no intentions of rebelling, and so it had to find a way to provoke them.
George H. Hepworth, an American journalist who travelled in East Anatolia, remembers in his memoir what the Armenians told him:
Ah, we were a happy people once. We … had large business interests, we were contented and prosperous. But the Treaty of Berlin! And the interference of England! If Europe would let us alone, we might still have a future…221
|A view from Cyprus in 1800s|
As the Empire began to lose strength, the peaceful atmosphere began to dissipate and left in its place an environment of hostility and riots nurtured by the British deep state. The Armenians, who have never been affected by rebellious and nationalist movements up to that point, were provoked by the British deep state, which played on their different faiths and ethnicities. In order to provoke the Christian Armenian community against Muslims, the British deep state began to spread the propaganda that Armenians were being oppressed and that their riot would be the rising of the so-called ‘downtrodden people’. Clashes and bloodshed would look like the natural outcome of this insidious plan.
General Mayewski, Russia’s General Consul in Van and Bitlis, recalls the shameless sedition and provocation by the British deep state:
|This magnificent Neo-Baroque mosque sits at Ortaköy, Istanbul. It was commissioned by Sultan Abdulmejid and was designed by Armenian architect Nigoğos Balyan in 1853.|
Europe had to see that Christians of Turkey – this time Armenians – were being oppressed and tyrannized by the Turks. This is what happened with Serbia and Bulgaria before and the plan was to use Armenians in the same way… Propaganda was like this: ‘Only with blood, Armenians can be free. Shed blood, Europe will protect you.’ They were convinced that there had to be bloodshed. They were positive that once Armenian blood was shed, Europe would rush to protect Armenians. If this hadn’t been the case, there wouldn’t have been this much violence. If the desire for autonomy hadn’t been strong, would thousands of lives be sacrificed upon the orders of London?222
The divisive sedition policy of the British deep state became more clear and visible over time. British Prime Minister Gladstone, who took office in 1880, declared that ‘to serve Armenians is to serve civilization’ and hinted at the British deep state’s policy when he stated that Armenians should be given independence for the East to progress and achieve enlightenment. It shouldn’t be surprising that the Gladstone government gathered Armenians together, helped them organize and egged them on by promising British support for their new state.223 However, their concern was neither protecting the Armenians nor bringing ‘enlightenment’ to the East. The true goal was dividing the Middle East into smaller parts, hoping that it would then be easier to control.
|An Armenian school training artists|
Historian Süleyman Kocabaş described this well-known fact with the following words:
Armenian violence erupted in Eastern Anatolia. According to the foreign witness accounts, Armenian rebels were secretly communicating with the British consuls in the region. General Mayewski, who was Russia’s Consul in Van, wrote about this. American journalist George H. Hepworth, who travelled to Eastern Anatolia in 1896, which marked the height of Armenian riots, also mentions about British-Armenian links in his memoir. He writes that the main reason behind the bloody confrontations between Muslims and Armenians in the region had been the Armenian rebels that came from other countries and says: “In the meantime, the revolutionists are doing what they can to make fresh outrages possible. That is their avowed purpose. They reason that if they can induce the Turks to kill more of the Armenians, themselves excepted, Europe will be forced to intervene, and then the Armenian kingdom will re-establish itself… England has eulogized them, has incited them to new effort. They steal their way into a village under cover of night, stir up those who will listen, declaring that if the people engage in open revolt the Powers will rush to their assistance.”224
|Ottoman Armenians engaged in art and craft.|
Indeed, the Armenian rebels in question organized a large rally in 1896 in Liverpool, where Gladstone gave another fiery speech sowing more seeds of sedition among the Armenians. 225
According to William L. Langer, who was a former chairman of the history department at Harvard University, “England is more responsible for the cold-blooded murders [in Turkey] which have come near exterminating the Armenians than all other nations put together”.226
Armenian riots managed and supervised by the British consuls in Anatolia reached their peak in July and August 1895. The Armenian riots that broke out in the year 1895 were as follows: September 29 in Divriği, October 2 in Trabzon, October 6 in Eğin, October 7 in Develi, October 9 in Akhisar, October 21 in Erzincan, October 25 in Gümüşhane, October 25 in Bitlis, October 26 in Bayburt, October 27 in Maraş, October 29 in Urfa, October 30 in Erzurum, November 2 in Diyarbakır, November 2 in Siverek, November 4 in Malatya, November 7 in Harput, November 9 in Arapgir, November 15 in Sivas, November 15 in Merzifon, November 16 in Antep, November 18 in Maraş, November 22 in Muş, December 3 in Kayseri and December 3 in Yozgat.
|Kayseri Talas Armenian Pre-school – June 15, 1911|
The Impact of Some So-Called Missionaries on the Armenian Community
British consuls were constantly telling lies about Ottoman administration to our Armenian citizens and were showing British as their savior. To this end, they would tour Armenian villages and spread their propaganda. One telegram sent from the province of Adana to the Minister of Internal Affairs described such separatist activities of the consuls very clearly:
Captain Cooper, the British Deputy Consul in Adana, is given this assignment only for overseeing the issues of British citizens like a normal deputy consul according to the imperial edict issued by the British State. However since the first day he arrived here, he has been portraying himself as a defender of the downtrodden. He has been asking people who have lost in courts to go to him, accepts the petitions and suggestions of tradesmen and complainants, promising to help them. He then goes and questions the prosecutors about their decisions and says, ‘why did the court make this decision’, slanders the Ottoman Empire before the complainants and tries to win their hearts by praising the justice of Britain. His actions have passed the borders of being tolerable… Rumors have begun circulating around here that this place will be left to the British like Cyprus has been handed over to them and that’s why the consul came in the first place, and that Kozan, Zeytun, Dersim and Van would be entrusted to the autonomous management of an Armenian governor that would be called Armenia like in Bulgaria. There is no need to explain how dangerous this development is for the independence and jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire and how it will damage the order and safety of the country. If the situation continues, the opinions of the citizens will completely change and things will get even more dangerous. Not having any instructions as to how we should proceed with regards to these developments leaves me in a state of confusion and trouble as my sense of duty and my desire to protect the dignity of the government require me to take action. Please kindly send me your detailed instructions as to what should be done.227 (December 15, 1879)
After a while, the activities referred to in the above telegram began to affect some Armenians. While many of our Armenian citizens remained loyal to the state, some of them -albeit few- were swayed by the British deep state. For its plan to break up the Ottoman Empire, the British deep state required intelligence from Anatolia. These Armenian rebels working under the British deep state’s control acted as the fifth branch of the British intelligence operations between 1890 and 1922. During the Gallipoli Campaign, as well as the Armenian incidents in Adana and the 1915 riots, the British intelligence and Armenian rebel groups worked closely together, because those Armenian rebels, having lived in Anatolia for a very long time, were as knowledgeable of Anatolia as the Turks. In other words, the Armenian insurgency provided the much-needed intelligence to the British deep state for its full-fledged war on the Ottoman Empire. This exploitation and recruitment of some Armenians that the British deep state managed to deceive was nothing other than the implementation of a plan that had been elaborately developed over a course of almost 100 years.
|Surp Boğos Armenian Catholic Church
opened during the Ottoman Empire still
exists and welcomes our Armenian brothers
and sisters even today.
Vilification Campaign by the British Media
The first stage in the artificially manufactured problem between Turks and Armenians, who had lived brotherly together for centuries, was provoking the Armenian community against the Ottoman Empire. During the 1878 Berlin Congress, the parties discussed defending Armenians as leverage against Russia, and Lord Salisbury proposed securing the rights of Armenians and an urgent improvement of their situation. These suggestions were made the 61st clause of the Treaty of Berlin. Needless to say, improvement of all communities, not just the Armenians, is and should be the wish and ambition of every conscientious person. However, the British deep state is not concerned with the well being of Armenians or any other people. It is concerned about its own interests only.
At the same time, lobbying efforts sped up in Britain, and Armenian writers were encouraged to write against the Ottomans and join in the anti-Ottoman propaganda.
For instance, an Armenian named Agopyan, acting upon instructions of Lord Salisbury, started publishing a newspaper in London called Haiasdan, while famous papers like the Truth, which was owned by Henry Labouchère, started spreading the false news that Armenians were oppressed by the Ottomans due to their Christian identity. Although the Ottoman government applied to local courts to prevent such news, the defamation campaign continued under the pretense of freedom of speech.
|(1) A painting in a French magazine depicting the Armenian riot in the Ottoman Empire
(2) An Armenian Church built in the Ottoman era in Izmir (1915)
|Some of our Armenian brothers, with whom we have lived peacefully together for centuries, participated in the riots against the Ottoman Empire upon the sedition of the British deep state.|
These were deliberate actions intended to build negative public opinion in Europe against the Ottoman Empire in a bid to increase pressure on the Government. Certain British politicians, particularly Gladstone, made inflammatory speeches in the House of Commons against Ottomans, and claimed with no real evidence that ‘Christians were being persecuted’. So much so, the Times began disseminating lies like Christians being killed, churches and other Christian buildings being looted and things getting more dangerous by the day.
Ottoman diplomat Salih Münir Pasha, in his report sent to His Majesty’s Administration Office in Yıldız Palace, described the propaganda as follows:
When the current developments are carefully examined, it becomes clear that Britain is working hard to achieve certain goals that will be detrimental to Ottoman Empire’s interests. Gladstone’s party’s actions and the publication of newspapers linked to Salisbury group are deliberately designed to make their evil intentions acceptable in the public eye.228 (London, September 4, 1889, Salih Münir)
The British deep state also used the Sasun riot started by some Armenians in 1894 to bolster its black propaganda. Suddenly, the European media was flooded with articles spreading the lie of the alleged massacre of Armenians at the hands of the Turks. Anti-Ottoman and anti-Muslim rallies began breaking out in various European cities, as a result of this one-sided, inaccurate news. The European public was being familiarized with the so-called idea of ‘saving the Armenians from the Turks’. However, the facts were shielded from the public eye: the British deep state was planning to bring down the Ottoman Empire and divide Anatolia and the Middle East into smaller parts that it hoped would be easier to control. All these efforts were designed to help the cause.
PROPAGANDA PAINTINGS THAT
DO NOT REFLECT THE TRUTHThe British deep state as a method of black propaganda made sure that the European media published provocative paintings suggesting that the Ottomans were persecuting the Armenians.
The British deep state propaganda machine made sure to benefit from every incident. Small incidents were grossly overstated, and every issue was turned into news with exaggerations and inaccurate interpretations. British newspapers like the Times, the Standard, Daily Telegraph, and Daily Chronicle were full of biased commentaries and articles against the Ottoman Empire and the Turks. Gladstone on the other hand, with his fiery yet empty speeches, continued to rally British politicians and the public against the Ottomans.
The reports of Gerald H. Fitzmaurice, who worked as an interpreter in the British embassy of the time, were allegedly based on his observations during his journey across Anatolia and were used as the imaginary ammunition for the black propaganda war. His reports, -most of which were fictitious- published in the name of British diplomacy, were influencing some other foreign ambassadors as well. Now the British deep state was gaining the support of not only its own public, but other European countries too, making them players in the implementation of its plans. A century later, similar fake evidence methods would re-appear in the occupation of Iraq, as a way of forming public opinion in favor of mobilization of international military forces.
The chapter regarding “the British deep state’s propaganda prowess and its global media network” will examine further how the British deep state turned the artificial Armenian issue into media propaganda.
The 19th Century’s Riots and the Looming War
Armenian riots in the Ottoman Empire were essentially organized by three rebel groups: Armenakan Party founded by Mekertich Portukalian in 1885, Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnak Party) and Social Democratic Hunchakian Party (also known as Hunchak Party) founded by Avetis Nazarbekian. The Dashnak and Hunchak parties were leftist groups, and the Hunchaks especially based their principles on Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto. While the Armenakan and Dashnak parties were based in the Ottoman Empire, the Hunchak was headquartered in London.
With a cold-blooded revolutionist mentality, the Dashnak Party directly instigated the Armenian riots. It was also responsible for the Sasun and Van riots, the Ottoman Bank raid in Istanbul as well as numerous massacres in Eastern Anatolia. They also founded the notorious ‘Black Cross Society’ to kill any Armenian that didn’t support their riots. The name was chosen because after the gang members killed their victims consisting of the peace loving Armenians, they would make a cross mark on the victim’s forehead. After the blood dried, it would look dark; hence the name. Furthermore, it was the Dashnak Party which organized the four brigades of Ottoman Armenians that fought for the Russian Army during WWI. After the Red Army took control of Soviet Armenia, upon Stalin’s orders, tens of thousands of Dashnakist Armenians were either killed by firing squads or exiled. As the readers have seen many times throughout the book, the British deep state brought death to whomever it touched and Armenians were no different.
The first Armenian riot that was started by British deep state sedition was the Zeitun riot of 1879. The selection of Zeitun as the location was particularly noteworthy as it was a mountainous area notorious for its gangs. It is important to note that the said gangs were lawless criminals, and definitely did not represent the peaceful Armenians that lived in the Ottoman lands.
|It is important not to confuse the Armenian gangs that rebelled against the Ottoman Empire with our Armenian brothers and sisters who were a part of the Empire. The gangs usually consisted of thugs that lived in mountainous areas and that fell for the lies of the British deep state.|
Thomas Davidson Christie, an American missionary, wrote in his letter dated January 1879 that most of the Armenians that lived in Zeitun area were gangsters:
Zeitun has a population of 8–10 thousand. People in Zeitun are known for their brutality and ruthlessness… and they hate Turks. Twelve years ago (1867), when Mr. Montgomery first went to Zeitun, the Zeitun priest provoked people and missionary Montgomery and his companion were pulled down from their horses, beaten up and stoned. There was also another man in Zeitun who was beaten up because he converted to Protestantism. Zeitun thugs didn’t show good manners under Turkish rule either. Eventually they did surrender, but until that there have been times when they forced the Turkish soldiers to retreat. However, those riots were not for freedom. They didn’t want lawful freedom. Their leaders were crude gang leaders. They looted both Turkish and Christian property. They would always fight amongst each other as well, and these fights were always very bloody.229
|Armenians living in Yeşilköy during the Ottoman era|
Clearly, these rebellious thugs didn’t represent the pious and loyal Armenians who lived peacefully under Ottoman rule for centuries and were happily engaged in their arts and trade. Rather, these lawless and armed criminals provided the mercenaries the British deep state needed to use against the Ottoman Empire.
Zeitun witnessed two big riots, one during the Russo-Turkish war (1877-78), and one right after the war in 1879. Izmir Armenian Church’s Pontiff claimed that an Armenian church was going to be established in Zeitun based on Berlin Congress resolutions and that the British would send them money and weapons for this purpose. This rhetoric played a role in the second riot. English Said Pasha, who was the Minister of the Navy at the time, wrote in his memoir that Patrick Henderson, British Consul at Aleppo, had been behind the riot.
During the Zeitun riot, armed gangs targeted Muslim villages and news of massacres kept coming regularly from the region. Some 600 local Muslims, who had enough of these attacks, set out to confront the rebels in an attempt to defend the Muslims in Zeitun. Seeing that a civil war was brewing, the Sublime Porte dispatched troops to the region to suppress the riot. To better understand what happened, let’s see what the thugs’ leader Babek wrote to Henderson, the British Consul at Aleppo. Maraş Governor Mazhar Pasha intercepted the letter, a valuable evidence.
|1. Armenian rebels
(2) A view of Zeitun where the Armenian riot took place
To the British Consul at Aleppo,
His Excellency Consul, who came to Zeitun for exploration,
We are ready to rub our faces on the soil on your feet, and kiss your feet from here until there… Only God in the Heaven, and us on Earth know about the meeting we had with you. We are yet to benefit from the meeting minutes we have given to you in the chamber of Patriarch Serkis. We’re still waiting. We did everything you ordered. You also know that we never disobeyed your commandments. You said to us: ‘After I leave, let the gang members come and sit here freely, and not suffer in the mountains. If any government official comes and dares to catch them, you should resist and let me know so that I can inform others of your resistance.’ But as soon as our men leave Zeitun, they are being killed. Please send us an urgent reply. What should we do?…
In your letter, you informed of the commissioning of a Christian district officer and that government officers would be chosen among us. However, according to what we heard, the new officers are going to be Muslims. If that is true, we shall make our preparations accordingly. We shouldn’t be left in the blind like before. Let us live according to your orders. May you live long. Please do something to get our arrested members released as soon as possible. We accept to pay whatever costs you will incur. All our surrounding villages and we are on the side of your nation… As you ordered, we have delivered the weapons that we got from the government to Patvili Effendi… Should we act like we did before, or keep a low profile? Please let us know urgently.230
English Said Pasha’s measures effectively ended the Zeitun riot. Furthermore, a general amnesty was declared to cover all Armenians, including leaders of the riot, while the state compensated all personal losses. It is noteworthy that the Pasha, responsible for the measures that led to the amnesty even for those that killed many people, had the nickname ‘English’. However, Said Pasha correctly guessed that it wasn’t going to be the end of these riots:
The Zeitun people are acting rebellious like this because Europeans constantly favor Christians and especially because British protects Armenians and sees Muslims at fault. It is clear from the letter that Mr. Henderson, who is the British Consul at Aleppo, sent to Zeitun gangsters that he encouraged the rebels. The Armenians around Van and in Aleppo rebelling and making complaints to foreign ambassadors; no doubt this is clearly for the purpose of building an autonomous Armenian province in the future. This is not going to happen overnight. However, if we don’t do something to prevent it now, Europe will ask us to appoint an Armenian governor to Van. Then, we will have to assign an Armenian governor there like we did in Lebanon and Crete.231
Pasha’s predictions came true. Bedros Kapamajian became the first Armenian mayor of Van in 1912, and in 1915 the Russians appointed Armenian Aram Manukian as the governor.
Let us remember one more time at this point: We are always proud to have had Armenian governors. We have had many Armenian pashas and grand viziers throughout our history. The valuable members of our nation -Armenians, Kurds, Bosnians, Circassians among others- took important positions in the administration and Turkish people have always been proud of this. However, in this case, it was just a sly tactic employed by the British deep state, and this is the reason why they are being criticized here. (It should be noted that the Russians’ incitement of Armenian gangs was also a British deep state’s plan). Most of the appointed governors were employed as agents in an operation to tear away certain regions from the Ottoman Empire. This was a blatant plot and a trap. In addition, the Armenian rebels in question have never been loyal citizens of the Empire, but chose to be sycophants of the British deep state. Apparently, the British deep state had no trouble finding minions among the Armenian community, just like it didn’t within the Ottoman Empire.
Caucasus Campaign in WWI
Although completely wrong, during wartime, most belligerents consider every means to an end acceptable, which is usually for protecting their people. Wars can make reasonable and rational people unreasonable and irrational, while greed for victory or the quest to protect one’s own people can drive them to commit atrocities. This is what happened to the Turks and the Armenians as the two fraternal nations made a tragic mistake and turned against each other amidst the horrible background of WWI.
American historian and demographer Justin McCarthy reports that between 1821 and 1922, five million European Muslims were driven out of their homelands, and a similar number of them were massacred in the so-called independence wars, sponsored by Europe. This ethnical massacre of Muslims took place during the Serbian and Greek independence movements, during the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78, the Balkan war in 1912, the Armenian riots in Central Anatolia, the Greek invasion and finally the Turkish War of Independence. In his report for Carnegie Endowment, Michael Mann writes that the ethnical massacre of the time was so shocking nothing of a similar magnitude had ever taken place before in Europe.232 Historian Maria Todorova similarly states that more than one million Muslims left the Balkans during the last three decades of the 19th century and relocated to Turkey.233 Many of those Ottoman martyrs are not even known today. The British deep state’s plan to drive the Turks out of Europe into Asia brought about such shocking cruelty and savagery.
|Armenian scouts leading the way to the Russian army in the Caucasus front. Armenian gangs joined the Russians and fought against the Ottoman army.|
Some Armenians deceived by the British deep state became an important part in the plan to banish the Turks. Historian Justin McCarthy puts the number of Muslim deaths of the time at 260,000, while Kemal Karpat reports that the number of martyrs reached 300,000. Some Armenians supported by the British deep state became the biggest supporters of the campaign of the Russian army of the time in the Caucasus. The British deep state considered the breakup of the Ottoman Empire more beneficial for their interests, and therefore ‘got out of the Russians’ way’ before turning Turks-Russians and Turks-Armenians against each other. At the end of these horrible, brutal wars and massacres, the British deep state was always the only one that won.
As British and French battleships launched their attack on Gallipoli in 1915, the Russian army had begun invading Eastern Anatolia. Collaborating with the Russian army, some Armenian groups were encouraged by the British deep state to attack the Ottoman soldiers. As a result, the Ottoman army had to fight not only regular armies, but also Armenian guerillas. When 80,000 soldiers of the 3rd Army became martyrs in Sarıkamış Erzurum in the winter of 1915, the Turkish defense weakened, enabling the Russian Army and the Armenian rebels to advance. The Dashnak, Armenakan and Hunchak parties, which were operating under direct control of the British deep state, were organizing the Armenian riots. According to New York Times report of November 14, 1922, the number of Armenians who fought on the side of the Allies reached almost 200,000.
|A picture that proves how Armenian gangs allied with the Russians to fight against the Ottoman Empire during WWI. Following their promise, Armenian gangs fought with the Russians during the Battle of Sarikamish.|
The following instruction of the Dashnak’s leadership to its followers sheds a light on the policy some rebellious Armenians pursued during the war:
As soon as the Russians have crossed the borders and the Ottoman armies have started to retreat, you should revolt everywhere. The Ottoman armies thus will be placed between two fires: if the Ottoman armies advance against the Russians, on the other hand, their Armenian soldiers should leave their units with their weapons, form bandit forces, and unite with the Russians…234
The Armenian riot in February 1915 resulted in the martyrdom of almost the entire Muslim population of the city of Muş. According to the records of the Turkish Army, the number of martyrs reached 20,000. After this and many other big and small riots, the Ottoman Empire summoned the Armenian Patriarch, Armenian parliament members, and the leading figures of the Armenian community and asked them to make necessary efforts to end the riots.
However, instead of slowing down, things got worse. Especially in March 1915, the Mahmudiye, Saray and Perakal massacres in Van, as well as the Zeitun and Bitlis riots, made the situation in the region extremely volatile. However, what happened in Van was the final straw. In April, some 30,000 Armenians rebelled in the region and when the Ottoman soldiers failed to suppress the rebellion, the rebels handed the key of the city to Russian General Yudenich in May.
|Armenian gangs that joined the Bulgarian army during the Balkan War under the leadership of Antranik Ozanyan.|
Nurse Käthe Ehrhold describes the incidents of Spring 1915, during which she was working at the orphanage run by Father Johannes Spörri and his wife Irene Spörri:
20 thousand people were then living in Van. As the Russian approached (April 20, 1915), the Armenians took up the arms they were hiding and started to fight. A big civil war, a war of brothers, burst out in the town. Street fights took place for days. When the Russians approached to the town further, the Turks decided to evacuate the city; both civilians and military had to leave the town in one night. Only women, elderly and diseased people remained. The other day, when the Armenian gangs and Russians seized the town, the Armenians massacred the women, elderly and diseased Turks, who were unable to escape. As devoted Christians, they had to thank God first for His granting them that victory day. But they did not do that; I regard the murders they carried out on the first day of independence as big sinfulness.
The Armenians seized the remaining properties of Turks and started to use them as if they were their own properties. Now, instead of Armenian villagers, Turkish women from the neighboring villages started to come to my orphanage. We took those women gathered by Russians under protection in our orphanage. Otherwise those poor women would have been victimized by the first who encountered them. We were not able to help those women sufficiently, because maltreated and raped by the gang members, they were terribly trembling in fear.235
Hans Freiherr von Wangenheim, Germany’s Ambassador to Istanbul, reported the incidents to the German Foreign Ministry:
Armenians living in the Van province rioted and attacked Muslim villages and the fortress. The Turkish unit in the fortress lost 300 soldiers and days-long street fighting resulted in the loss of the city to the rebels. On May 17, 1915, Russians occupied Van, Armenians switched to enemy side and began slaughtering Muslims. At the moment, 80,000 Muslims are fleeing in the direction of Bitlis.236
The British Deep State Brought the Biggest Destruction to Armenians
Before we begin examining the mass Armenian relocation that took place after these riots, let’s briefly remember what happened in the century before:
When the Greek riot broke out in 1826, the Sublime Porte assigned Armenian politicians, military officers and bureaucrats to positions vacated by the Greeks. So much so that by the 19th century, nineteen Armenian ministers were in the Ottoman government, and twenty-nine Ottoman Armenians served as pashas, which was the highest rank in bureaucracy. Thirty-three Armenians were elected as Parliament Members, while seven Armenian ambassadors and eleven Armenians consuls represented the Ottoman Sultan in various parts of the world. Hundreds of Armenian bureaucrats occupied key positions in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Foreign Affairs, the Chamber of Accounts, the Mint and the Post Office. They were Christians who lived in the Ottoman lands, freely known and recognized as Armenians. They enjoyed comfortable lives without any oppression, pressure or assimilation threats, and were able to ascend through the ranks to the highest positions in the administration. Most of the time, the Turkish troops were entrusted to Armenian pashas.
During those years, the Armenian Church in the Ottoman Empire had vast power. Their schools and immovable properties were under state protection. However, Armenians that lived in Russia during the same time didn’t enjoy such rights. On the contrary, Tsarist Russia had shut down 320 Armenian schools, while the Russian government seized all the properties of the Armenian Church. In 1909, up to 4,000 Armenians were languishing in tsarist prisons on political charges, and some 3,000 more were exiled.237
Before the British deep state commenced implementing its sinister plans, the Ottoman Empire for centuries had been a land of peace and security for our Armenian brothers and sisters. They freely practiced their faith and led affluent lives through their trade. They were the Christian constituents of the Ottoman Empire and were not different from the other Ottoman citizens. However, the ‘persecuted minorities’ lie that the British deep state propagated after it decided to bring down the Ottoman Empire, managed to influence our Armenian brothers due to intensive propaganda and provocation. As the readers will see in the next chapter, the British deep state, as a skilled master of manipulation and propaganda, managed to deceive masses to a large extent by using the media around the world. During those years, the Ottoman Empire had no power to counter this black propaganda, as it was falling apart. This weakened state provided necessary opportunity to those seeking to break us apart from our Armenian brothers and sisters.
Facts About the Armenian Mass Relocation
The basic goal of the –largely socialist– Hunchak and Dashnak resistance movements founded around 1890 was to gain independence for Armenians through revolution. When the Ottoman Empire decided to enter WWI alongside Germany in 1914, some Armenians under the influence of these movements, allied with the Russians, British and French. As a result, these Armenians started riots in thirty-three different regions, during which thousands of Turks, Kurds and Assyrians lost their lives. These riots plunged the empire into an atmosphere of complete disorder and turmoil.
Having just lost the Balkans in 1912, the Ottoman Empire during those days was facing numerous problems at different fronts: massacres and mass deportations were underway in Bulgaria and Caucasus and only in 1914, more than one million Turks were forced to leave Yerevan and Tiflisi. Only 702,000 would return.
On April 24, 1915, the Sublime Porte ordered the arrest of 253 leaders of the Armenian gangs who were responsible for the riots. 180 of them were sent to various jails. The Ottoman administration decided that the Armenian population should be relocated to various distant areas that were not connected to conflicts. While the rationality of the decision to relocate the Armenian population revealed questionable judgment in the way national security was handled, it is quite clear that the decision was based on a desire to ensure the safety of the innocent Armenian civilians that had already suffered due to the situation. Many women, children and elderly living in conflict zones had trouble accessing food, clean water or medical assistance due to the riots, while many others lost their lives in gang attacks. For this reason, Armenians living close to the conflict zones were relocated to Syria, a southern Ottoman territory.
|Armenians are our brothers and sisters and with their artistic talents, made great contributions to the Ottoman economy for years.|
The Ottoman Council of Ministers’ decision of May 30, 1915 is a testament to the Ottoman administration’s just approach to the issue. So much so, the decision introduced strict measures to help the relocated citizens, including careful protection of their lives and properties, allocations from the refugee fund for their needs, granting of property and lands depending on their circumstances, government-built homes, supply of humanitarian aid including food, equipment, medical supplies, daily medical checks, transportation by train for women, children and sick individuals, among others. Furthermore, it was declared that any attempt to attack the Armenians on their way would be punished in the most severe manner in court martial.
The Armenian issue was manufactured as a British deep state propaganda, which was at war with the Ottoman Empire at the time. Today, for similar political reasons, the lie is still being kept alive. Such propaganda and lies propagated by means of media and secret agents will be covered in more detail in the next chapter.
|(1 The Ottoman theater cadre directed by Armenian Mardiros Minakyan during the Ottoman era
(2) Armenian artisans
Armenians are our brothers, sisters, friends; they are our citizens. The British deep state played a very sinister game during wartime and pitted brother against brother, and tore them apart. We were never happy with the fact that Armenian people had to leave these lands even if was a requisite of the status quo. At this point, it is both important and desirable that the grandchildren of our brothers and sisters who had to leave during those days, return back to Turkey to once again live happily with their fraternal people, the Turks. We long to see the days when the Turkey-Armenia border is opened and our long-lost brothers and sisters come back to resume their lives in Turkey as their own country whenever they wish, and continue to display their excellence in arts and trade as before. When this happens, not only we will be reunited, but the ongoing nefarious games of the British deep state will be foiled.
‘Regulation of June 10, 1915 on the Resettlement and Subsistence of Armenians and Other Relevant Details’ as a Part of the Relocation and Resettlement Law Passed on May 27, 1915
|This regulation governs the issues regarding the accommodation and provisions of Armenians that were relocated to other regions due to wartime conditions and other extraordinary political circumstances.
Article 1: The local officers shall be in charge of the transportation of those considered necessary to be relocated.
Article 2: Relocated Armenians shall be free to take all their movables and livestock with them.
Article 3: Local officers stationed at posts on the way to the destinations shall be responsible for the protection of the lives and properties of the relocated Armenians, as well as their accommodation, provisions and for helping them get the necessary rest. Should any negligence or lax behavior is discovered with regards to such assistance, all officers shall be held responsible.
Article 4: Depending on the situation, the Armenians that arrive at the specified locations shall either be settled in the houses in the existing villages or in the towns or villages to be built for them in the areas designated by local authorities. Particular attention must be paid to ensure that villages have good sanitary conditions and are built in places suitable for agriculture and development.
Article 5: İskan bölgelerinde köy kurulmasına elverişli, boş, sahipsiz ve devlete ait arazi bulunmaması durumunda, devlet malı olan çiftlik ve köylerin iskân için tahsis edilmeleri uygundur.
Article 6: The villages and towns where Armenians will settle and the villages to be built for Armenians must be at least 25 km away from Baghdad railway joints and other railways.
Article 7:Armenians to be settled in existing villages and towns and the Armenians to be settled in newly built villages, must be registered properly for the purposes of the state register. The registers must include family names, age, occupation, origin and new location as well as all other relevant details of the household.
Article 8:Individuals settled in designated areas are not allowed to travel to other places without the permission of the relevant commission and the local security authorities.
Article 9:The local authorities shall cover all the expenses of the Armenians until they obtain their permanent residences and also any expenses that they might incur, until houses are built for those who need it, shall be paid through the refugee fund.
Article 10: Refugee commissions, represented by senior civil administrators and directors in relevant areas shall be responsible for meeting the needs of the Armenians, be it regarding the resettlement or subsistence. They shall also be responsible for protecting their health and ensuring their comfort. For areas, where there are no refugee commissions, they should be established in conformity with the Refugees Communiqué.
Article 11:Provided that permits are obtained from the Ministry, the tenants and governors shall be responsible for carrying out settlement procedures, providing provision in a speedy manner, and also for the appointment of officers in charge of resettlement and subsistence.
Article 12: All families that are relocated shall be granted sufficient lands considering their previous financial standing and current needs.
Article 13: Refugee commissions shall be responsible for the selection and distribution of the lands.
Article 14: After the area and borders of the designated lands are determined, they shall be delivered to their new owners in return for a temporary document, and shall be registered in the title deed in an orderly fashion.
Article 15: Farmers and skilled workers, who need it, shall be given suitable amount of capital or equipment.
Adnan Oktar Says
|Adnan Oktar: The enmity between Armenians and us, the Turks, is very unnecessary. Those events happened years ago. Both sides suffered immensely. People have been through a lot. It is God’s destiny. No one should approach each other with vengeful feelings and grudge. We don’t want revenge. We don’t want compensation. We just want to be brothers, to be friends. It is now history. Past is past. It is now a new generation; there are young people around. Talking about the past will hold us back. We will embrace them with compassion. We want them to be rich and peaceful. This [loving approach] is going to solve the problem once and for all.
(Excerpt from Mr. Adnan Oktar’s interview on APA News Agency, August 16, 2008)
The Evidence Speaks the Truth
There are many historians and politicians who tell the truth about what happened during the Armenian relocation. Especially, many unbiased observers who were present in the region during the time, revealed how the Ottoman government acted extremely sensitively and carefully about the issue. Edward Nathan, the US Consul in Mersin stated, “Although there are some problems due to the crowd, the government is undertaking this matter very carefully, in a systematic manner, doesn’t allow violence or disorder, provides sufficient tickets to the migrants, and helps the ones that need aid”.238 However, the news that was served to the Western public was very different from the truths. Despite these unbiased accounts of witnesses, Henry Morgenthau, US Ambassador to Istanbul, reported the events to his country in a completely distorted manner and some American media outlets used this against the Turks.
Clearly, the Armenian riots and events leading up to the relocation of the Armenians were orchestrated by the British deep state. Many sensible people are aware of this fact and made clear statements in response to the baseless allegations against the Ottoman Empire:
Renowned British Historian Norman Stone
Leaders of the Dashnak and Hunchak parties are responsible for all of these incidents. They plotted conspiracies like lead character in Dostoyevsky’s “Demons” in an attempt to secure political interests. However, they only brought destruction to Armenian people.
However, the following truth must be kept in mind: there were seven million Turks in Caucasus, Crimea and the Balkans and most of them lost their lives. We don’t remember them at all. Because of that, we are being accomplices to racism.239
British Ambassador Sir Philip Currie’s Letter to the Foreign Office, March 28, 1894
The aim of the Armenian revolutionaries is to stir disturbances, to get the Ottomans to react to violence and thus to get the foreign Powers to intervene…
The aims of the revolutionary committees are to stir up general discontent and to get the Turkish government and people to react with violence, thus attracting the attention of the foreign powers to the imagined sufferings of the Armenian people, and getting them to act to correct the situation.240
|Mark Lambert Bristol|
Admiral Mark Lambert Bristol, American High Commissioner to Turkey and Battalion Commander in US Navy between 1919-1927
…I see that reports are being freely circulated in the United States that the Turks massacred thousands of Armenians in the Caucasus. Such reports are repeated so many times it makes my blood boil. The Near East Relief has the reports from Yarrow and our own American people which show absolutely that such Armenian reports are absolutely false. The circulation of such false reports in the United States, without refutation, is an outrage and is certainly doing the Armenians more harm than good. I feel that we should discourage the Armenians in this kind of work, not only because it is wrong, but because they are injuring themselves…241
Hovhannes Katchaznouni, the First Prime Minister of the First Republic of Armenia, and the Leader of the Dashnak Party
… We had embraced Russia whole-heartedly without any compunction. Without any positive basis of fact we believed that the Tzarist government would grant us a more-or-less broad self-government in the Caucasus and in the Armenian vilayets liberated from Turkey as a reward for our loyalty, our efforts and assistance. We had created a dense atmosphere of illusion in our minds. We had implanted our own desires into the minds of others; we had lost our sense of reality and were carried away with our dreams. …
However, it is important that we couldn’t find suitable measures to improve our situation from inside and outside before and after the War we participated with the promises given to us (World War I.)… We couldn’t take the administrative measures to establish order in the regions we occupied, and obliged to take up arms. We sent armies, set on fire and demolished, and massacred…242
H. A. Arslanian
Demonstrably, British pledges regarding Armenia, like those given to Arabs regarding Syria, Mesopotamia and Palestine, were primarily a device to encourage the Armenian war efforts, favorably impress the neutral countries and ensure that the enemy, the Ottoman Empire, fell from within by appealing to the national aspirations of ethnic minorities living under its control.243
The Statement by American Scholars and Historians Addressed to the US House of Representatives (May 19, 1985)
The weight of evidence so far uncovered points in the direct of serious inter communal warfare (perpetrated by Muslim and Christian irregular forces), complicated by disease, famine, suffering and massacres in Anatolia and adjoining areas during the First World War. Indeed, throughout the years in question, the region has been the scene of more or less continuous warfare, not unlike the tragedy which has gone on in Lebanon for the past decade. The resulting number of deaths among both Muslim and Christian communities of the region is immense.244
The Message of Mr. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan on the events of 1915 (April 23, 2014)
Millions of people of all religions and ethnicities lost their lives in the First World War. Having experienced events which had inhumane consequences – such as relocation – during the First World War, should not prevent Turks and Armenians from establishing compassion and mutually humane attitudes towards one another.245
|Mr. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan|
The Message of Mr. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan to Archbishop Aram Ateshian, the General Vicar of the Armenian Patriarchate of Turkey (April 23, 2016)
In the lands of Anatolia, where humanitarian duties are never neglected and happiness and grief are sincerely shared, the sense of conscience and justice are held above all.
In accordance with this understanding, as well as our sense of history and humanistic vision, we will continue to embrace the memories of the Ottoman Armenians.
We will always remind and remember the culture of cohabitation between Turks and Armenians which has a history of almost one thousand years.
We will never give up working for amity and peace against those who try to politicize history through a bitter rhetoric of hate and enmity and strive to alienate the two neighboring nations, who are bound with their common history and their similar traditions.246
The Speech of the Israeli Researcher Tal Buenos at Australia’s New South Wales State Parliament (November 24, 2014)
Going by my own growing familiarity with the facts, what happened may be characterized as a tragedy because the Armenians were set up for a big painful fall by the British, and by presumptive Armenian leaders, the so-called Armenian representatives who met with British officials – headed by Bryce – in London hotels, and acted irresponsibly toward the many innocent Armenians who were – as a result – fated to suffer the consequences of the actions of these so-called Armenian representatives. These representatives were fed by British hubris as they strove to advance the political quest for an Armenian independent state on Ottoman land, their personal ambition to be leaders of this state, but mainly on behalf of British imperialist agenda. There is no question that these actions, namely colluding with the British and agreeing to lead an intensified riot, meant selling out the safety of the Armenian people in eastern Anatolia who were not the majority in any of the provinces there, and would be subject to an escalation in violence similar to what followed Bryce’s previous campaigns to excite Armenian riot in the 1890s.247
An Armenian with a Medal of Independence: Berç Keresteciyan Türker
|After the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the British deep state furthered its policy on an independent Armenian state in East Anatolia. This propaganda led some Armenian subjects of the Ottoman Empire to aspire to a nation-state and to rebel against the Ottoman Empire. However, many other Ottoman citizens of Armenian origin understood that this was only a plot of the British deep state and refused to be a part of it. Berç Keresteciyan, who later obtained the surname Türker upon suggestion from Atatürk, was one of the heroes of the Turkish War of Independence.
Prior to Mustafa Kemal’s departure on SS Bandırma for Samsun, Keresteciyan went to Sadettin Ferit, who was Mustafa Kemal’s lawyer and said: “I believe you are his attorney and a close associate. A British torpedo will sink the steamer of the Pasha outside the Bosphorus. I’m warning you. Please tell Pasha and keep to the coastline.” With this very important message, he displayed an exemplary loyalty to his country and people, and became almost as important as those people that ignited the fire of the Turkish War of Independence.
Moreover, as the Vice Chairman of the Hilal-i Ahmer Society (now known as the Turkish Red Crescent), he personally took care of sending medication to Anatolia using small sailing boats. It is also a recorded fact that during one of the most critical points of the Battle of Sakarya, upon the request of Mustafa Kemal, he withdrew 15 thousand Lira from his personal account and donated it so that cannon firing equipment could be purchased. For these exemplary services, he was later awarded with a White Stripe Medal of Independence.1
|1. Fehmi Akın, Afyonkarahisar milletvekilleri: yaşam öyküleri ve meclisteki faaliyetleri [Afyonkarahisar MPs: Life Stories and Parliamentary Works], IQ Kültür Sanat Yayıncılık, 2009, pp. 107-108|
217. Kevork Aslan, L’Arménie et les Arméniens [Armenia and the Armenians], Istanbul: Librairie Weiss, 1914
218. Süleyman Kocabaş, Osmanlı İsyanlarında Yabancı Parmağı, pp. 85-86
219. T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Osmanlı Belgelerinde Ermeni İngiliz İlişkileri (1845-1890), [Turkish Republic Prime Minister’s Office, State Archives General Directorate, Armenia-English Relations in the Ottoman Documents] Ankara: State Archives General Directorate Publishing, 2004, p. 10
220. Louise Nalbandian, Armenian-Revolutionary Movement, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1963, p. 110
221. George H. Hepworth, Through Armenia on Horseback, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1898, p. 32
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238. “Tehcir Kanunu ve Bu Kanunun Tatbiki” [The Law of Deportation and Its Implementation] Gerçek Tarih, 08.08.2012 http://gercektarih1a.blogcu.com/ tehcir-kanunu-ve-bu-kanunun-tatbiki/12865279
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